High-resolution seismic velocity field estimation techniques and their application to geohazard, lithology and porosity prediction
V. Kalashnikova, I. Meisingset, R. Øveras and D. Krasova
Journal name: Near Surface Geophysics
Issue: Vol 18, No 1, February 2020 pp. 61 - 72
Info: Article, PDF ( 2.82Mb )
Price: € 30
Seismic velocity is an attractive parameter for geohazard interpretation, pore pressure analysis, play and prospect evaluations, and other geological studies, but ordinary seismic processing velocities often do not have a good enough resolution. We adapt a dynamic time warping algorithm to estimate geologically reasonable high-resolution velocities from average-quality seismic data that can be used for geohazard analysis based on 3D seismic data. To predict free gas and/or excess pore water pressure in thin shallow layers, we use velocity inversion. It is a method for simultaneous inversion of velocity data to geological attributes. It runs in the depth domain, uses a background velocity model for balancing of input velocities to wells and a normal compaction trend model to simultaneously estimate lithology, pore pressure and net apparent erosion attributes, while porosity is calculated from a sandstone–porosity relationship. The overall workflow is applied for geohazard analysis at two marine sites. The first example is a deep-water one from the Norwegian Sea, where thin and possibly overpressured or gas-filled layers are identified in the Pleistocene section. The second example is in a region with limestone-dominated lithology, where thin overpressured shales can cause severe drilling problems. In both examples, the thicknesses of the layers prone to geohazards are estimated to be about half of the wavelength. Dedicated high-resolution velocity estimations, such as those obtained through the proposed workflow with dynamic time warping, applied to standard 3D seismic data and followed by dedicated velocity inversion routines, are, therefore, a necessity for proper geohazard assessment.